Month: April 2014

interview questions of dot net

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    1.  When an .aspx page is requested from the web server, the out put will be rendered to browser in             following format.

  • HTML
  • XML
  • WML
  • JSP

    2.   The first event to be triggered in an aspx page is

  • Page_Load()
  • Page_Init()
  • Page_click()
  • Page_close()

3.    Common language specification (CLS)

  • an execution engine for all .NET applications.
  • similar to JVM as in Java.
  • defines standard rules for defining .NET compliant languages.
  • is a compiler

4.    Common Type Structure (CTS)

  • defines data types in order to be run by CLR.
  • defines a set of rules for all compilers to generate managed code for .NET.
  • describes a set of features that different languages have in common.
  • All of the above.
  • None of the above

5.   Which of the following statements is correct about Managed Code?

  • Managed code is the code that is compiled by the JIT compilers.
  • Managed code is the code where resources are Garbage Collected.
  • Managed code is the code that is written to target the services of the CLR.
  • Managed code is the code that runs on top of Windows.
  • Managed code is the code that can run on top of Linux.

6.  Which of the following jobs are performed by Garbage Collector?

  • Managing memory leaks
  • Releasing memory on the stack
  • Managing database collections
  • Closing unclosed files


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Data structures in C

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1. The memory address of the first element of an array is called

a. floor address
b. foundation address
c. first address
d. base address


2. The memory address of fifth element of an array can be calculated by the formula

a. LOC(Array[5]=Base(Array)+w(5-lower bound), where w is the number of words per memory cell for the array
b. LOC(Array[5])=Base(Array[5])+(5-lower bound), where w is the number of words per memory cell for the array
c. LOC(Array[5])=Base(Array[4])+(5-Upper bound), where w is the number of words per memory cell for the array
d. None of above


3. Which of the following data structures are indexed structures?

a. linear arrays
b. linked lists
c. both of above
d. none of above


4. Two dimensional arrays are also called

a. tables arrays
b. matrix arrays
c. both of above
d. none of above


5. Which of the following data structure can’t store the non-homogeneous data elements?

a. Arrays
b. Records
c. Pointers
d. None


6. Which of the following data structure store the homogeneous data elements?

a. Arrays
b. Records
c. Pointers
d. None


7. Binary search algorithm cannot be applied to

a. sorted linked list
b. sorted binary trees
c. sorted linear array
d. pointer array


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1. Software that defines a database, stores the data, supports a query language, produces reports and creates data entry screens is a:

A) Data dictionary

B) Database management system (DBMS)

C) Decision support system

D) Relational database


2. The separation of the data definition from the program is known as:

A) Data dictionary

B) Data independence

C) Data integrity

D) Referential integrity


3. In the client / server model, the database:

A) is downloaded to the client upon request

B) is shared by both the client and server

C) Resides on the client side

D) Resides on the server side


4. The database design that consists of multiple tables that are linked together through matching data stored in each table is called a:

A) Hierarchical database

B) Network database

C) Object oriented database

D) Relational database


5. Which of the following items is not the advantage of a DBMS?

A) Improved ability to enforce standards

B) Improved data consistency

C) Local control over the data

D) Minimal data redundancy


6. Which of the following statements is not correct?

A) All many-to-many relationships must be converted to a set of one-to-many relationships by adding a new entity

B) In a one-to-one relationship between two classes, the two classes are generally described by one table in relational database model

C) Encapsulation provides some security and control features

D) Properties and functions can be protected from other areas of the applications


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interview questions of dot net

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Qu.) Difference between stored procedure and function


1) Procedure can return zero or n values whereas function can return one value which is mandatory.
2) Procedures can have input, output parameters for it whereas functions can have only input parameters.
3) Procedure allows select as well as DML statement in it whereas function allows only select statement in it.
4) Functions can be called from procedure whereas procedures cannot be called from function.
5) Exception can be handled by try-catch block in a procedure whereas try-catch block cannot be used in a function.
6) We can go for transaction management in procedure whereas we can’t go in function.
7) Procedures cannot be utilized in a select statement whereas function can be embedded in a select statement.


Qu.)  Difference between Abstract and Interface

Ans.) Abstract Class:
-Abstract class provides a set of rules to implement next class
-Rules will be provided through abstract methods
-Abstract method does not contain any definition
-While inheriting abstract class all abstract methods must be override
-If a class contains at least one abstract method then it must be declared as an “Abstract Class”
-Abstract classes cannot be instantiated (i.e. we cannot create objects), but a reference can be created
-Reference depends on child class object’s memory
-Abstract classes are also called as “Partial abstract classes”
-Partial abstract class may contain functions with body and functions without body
-If a class contains all functions without body then it is called as “Fully Abstract Class” (Interface)

-If a class contains all abstract methods then that class is known as “Interface”
-Interfaces support like multiple inheritance
-In interface all methods r public abstract by default
-Interfaces r implementable
-Interfaces can be instantiated, but a reference cannot be created



Qu.)What are differences between Array list and Hash table?


1) Hash table store data as name, value pair. While in array only value is store.

2) To access value from hash table, you need to pass name. While in array, to access value, you need to pass index number.

3) you can store different type of data in hash table, say int, string etc. while in array you can store only similar type of data.


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DBMS and its Advantages

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  • One of the main advantages of using a database system is that the organization can exert, via the DBA, centralized management and control over the data.
  • The database administrator is the focus of the centralized control. Any application requiring a change in the structure of a data record requires an arrangement with the DBA, who makes the necessary modifications.
  • Such modifications do not affect other applications or users of the record in question.


  • Reduction of Redundancies:Centralized control of data by the DBA avoids unnecessary duplication of data and effectively reduces the total amount of data storage required. It also eliminates the extra processing necessary to trace the required data in a large mass of data.
  • Elimination of Inconsistencies: The main advantage of avoiding duplication is the elimination of inconsistencies that tend to be present in redundant data files .Any redundancies that exist in the DBMS are controlled and the system ensures that these multiple copies are consistent


  • Shared Data: A database allows the sharing of data under its control by any number of application programs or users. For example, the applications for the public relations and payroll departments can share the same data.
  • Integrity: Centralized control can also ensure that adequate checks are incorporated in the DBMS to provide data integrity .Data integrity means that the data contained in the database is both accurate and consistent. Therefore, data values being entered for the storage could be checked to ensure that they fall within a specified range and are of the correct format.
  • Security: Data is of vital importance to an organization and may be confidential. Such confidential data must not be accessed by unauthorized persons. The DBA who has the Ultimate responsibility for the data in the DBMS can ensure that proper access procedures are followed, including proper authentication schemes for access to the DBMS and additional checks before permitting access to sensitive data. Different levels of security could be implemented for various types of data and operations.
  • Conflict Resolution: Since the database is under the control of the DBA, he/she should resolve the conflicting requirements of various users and applications. In essence, the DBA chooses  the best file structure and access method to get optimal performance for the response critical applications, while permitting less critical applications to continue to use the database, albeit with a relatively slower response


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Data structures in C

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struct node

{int data;

struct node *next;


void creat()

{char ch;


struct node *new_node,*current;

new_node=(struct node *)malloc(sizeof(struct node));

printf(“nEnter the data : “);




{  start=new_node;

current=new_node;  }


{  current->next=new_node;

current=new_node;  }

printf(“nDo you want to creat another : “);



void display()

{struct node *new_node;

printf(“The Linked List : n”);



{   printf(“%d—>”,new_node->data);

new_node=new_node->next;   }



void main()




Enter the data : 10

Do you want to creat another :  y

Enter the data : 20

Do you want to creat another : y


Enter the data : 30

Do you want to creat another : n


The Linked List :



Qu.) What is CSS? Explain inline and embedded CSS.

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Ans.)   CSS stands for Cascading Style Sheets


Styles define how to display HTML elements

Styles were added to HTML 4.0 to solve a problem

External Style Sheetscan save a lot of work

External Style Sheets are stored in CSS files



Inline Styles

An inline style loses many of the advantages of style sheets by mixing content with presentation. Use this method sparingly.

To use inline styles you use the style attribute in the relevant tag. The style attribute can contain any CSS property. The example shows how to change the color and the left margin of a paragraph:


<p style=”color:sienna;margin-left:20px”>This is a paragraph.</p>



Internal or Embedded Style Sheet

An internal style sheet should be used when a single document has a unique style. You define internal styles in the head section of an HTML page, by using the <style> tag, like this:

<head> <style> hr {color:sienna;} p {margin-left:20px;} body {background-image:url(“images/back40.gif”);} </style> </head>


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Data structures in C

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Practical applications of data structures

Hash Table – used for fast data lookup – symbol table for compilers, database indexing, caches, and unique data representation.

Tree – dictionary, such as one found on a mobile telephone for auto completion and spell-checking.

Suffix tree – fast full text searches used in most word processors.

Stack – undo\redo operation in word processors, Expression evaluation and syntax parsing, many virtual machines like JVM are stack oriented.

Queues – Transport and operations research where various entities are stored and held to be processed later i.e. the queue performs the function of a buffer.

Priority queues – process scheduling in the kernel

Trees – Parsers, File system

Radix tree – IP routing table

BSP tree – 3D computer graphics

Graphs – Connections/relations in social networking sites, Routing ,networks of communication, data organization etc.

Heap – Dynamic memory allocation in lisp


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DBMS and its Applications

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DBMS and its Applications


A database management system is a software system. It allows access to the data in a database. It consists of a set of interrelated data together with a set of programs to access those data.



The objective of a DBMS is to provide a convenient and effective method of defining, storing and retrieving the data in the database.


Purpose of DBMS:

Before the arrival of DBMS, data were processed using file processing system. File processing system consists of several application programs and each application program has its own data stored in private files. In this system the same data file cannot be shared. Hence duplication of data is required if two or more application programs have to share the same data.


Disadvantage of file processing system:

The file processing system has the following major disadvantages:

  • Data redundancy and inconsistency.
  • Integrity Problems.
  • Security Problems
  • Difficulty in accessing data.
  • Data isolation.


a) Data redundancy and inconsistency:

Data redundancy means duplication of data and inconsistency means that the duplicated values are different.

b) Integrity problems:

Data integrity means that the data values in the data base should be accurate in the sense that the value must satisfy some rules.

c) Security Problem:

Data security means prevention of data accession by unauthorized users.

d) Difficulty in accessing data:

Difficulty in accessing data arises whenever there is no application program for a specific task.

e) Data isolation:

This problem arises due to the scattering of data in various files with various formats. Due to the above disadvantages of the earlier data processing system, the necessity for an effective data processing system arises. Only at that time the concept of DBMS emerges for the rescue of a large number of organizations.


Data base system applications:

Universities: For student information, course details, and grades.

Airlines: For reservations and schedule information.

Credit card transactions: For purchase on credit cards and generations of monthly statements.

Human resources: For information about employees, salaries, payroll taxes, benefits and for generations of paychecks.

Banking: For customer information, accounts, and banking transactions.


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  • Delegates in C# are used for Event Handling.  Delegates are useful for two main reasons:

First, delegates support events. Second, delegates give your program a way to execute

Methods at runtime without having to know precisely what those methods are at compile time.



  • An important C# feature is built upon the foundation of delegates: the event.
  • An event is, essentially, an automatic notification that some action has occurred. Events work like this:  An object that has an interest in an event registers an event handler for that event.
  • When the event occurs, all registered handlers are called. Event handlers are represented by delegates. Events are members of a class and are declared using the event keyword.


Its most commonly used form is shown here:

  • event event-delegate event-name;

Here, event-delegate is the name of the delegate used to support the event, and event name is the name of the specific event object being declared.


A simple example:

using System;

// Declare a delegate type for an event.

delegate void MyEventHandler();

// Declare a class that contains an event.

class MyEvent {

public event MyEventHandler SomeEvent;

// This is called to raise the event.

public void OnSomeEvent() {

if(SomeEvent != null)




class EventDemo {

// An event handler.

static void Handler() {

Console.WriteLine(“Event occurred”);


static void Main() {

MyEvent evt = new MyEvent();

// Add Handler() to the event list.

evt.SomeEvent += Handler;

// Raise the event.






Event occurred


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