- Why learn python programming?
Python is one of the most commonly used programming languages. For the past five years, Python has held the number one position as the “most popular coding language.”
- Why Django is the best web development framework for your project?
THERE’S A ROBUST STACK OF FRAMEWORKS WAITING FOR YOU.
Python owes a great deal of its flexibility to the many programming environments and frameworks that make the development of specific applications quick and easy.
For example, web developers can turn to frameworks like Django or Flask, which let you focus on writing the app or site rather than get bogged down by tedious legwork.
DJANGO, A HIGH-LEVEL PYTHON WEB FRAMEWORK, IS FLAT-OUT AMAZING.
The ability to use Django is perhaps one of the biggest advantages of learning Python.
The Django framework lets you model your domain and code classes.
Now you can focus your efforts on your user interface.
- Different ways to change ( configure) Django admin site header text ?
Update admin.py file with following line of code:
Admin.site.site_header=’text you want to change in header of the admin site’
Change url.py file:
Do you want to learn more about DJANGO framework? You can contact us. 9320957718 / 17
1.1 Data Communication: When we communicate, we are sharing information. This sharing can be local or remote. Between individuals, local communication usually occurs face to face, while remote communication takes place over distance.
A data communications system has five components.
- The message is the information (data) to be communicated. Popular forms of information include text, numbers, pictures, audio, and video.
- The sender is the device that sends the data message. It can be a computer, workstation, telephone handset, video camera, and so on.
- The receiver is the device that receives the message. It can be a computer, workstation, telephone handset, television, and so on.
- Transmission medium. The transmission medium is the physical path by which a message travels from sender to receiver. Some examples of transmission media include twisted-pair wire, coaxial cable, fiber-optic cable, and radio waves
- A protocol is a set of rules that govern data communications. It represents an agreement between the communicating devices. Without a protocol, two devices may be connected but not communicating, just as a person speaking French cannot be understood by a person who speaks only Japanese.
1.1.2 Data Representation:
Information today comes in different forms such as text, numbers, images, audio, and video.
In data communications, text is represented as a bit pattern, a sequence of bits (Os or Is). Different sets of bit patterns have been designed to represent text symbols. Each set is called a code, and the process of representing symbols is called coding. Today, the prevalent coding system is called Unicode, which uses 32 bits to represent a symbol or character used in any language in the world. The American Standard Code for Information Interchange (ASCII), developed some decades ago in the United States, now constitutes the first 127 characters in Unicode and is also referred to as Basic Latin.
Numbers are also represented by bit patterns. However, a code such as ASCII is not used to represent numbers; the number is directly converted to a binary number to simplify mathematical operations. Appendix B discusses several different numbering systems.
Images are also represented by bit patterns. In its simplest form, an image is composed of a matrix of pixels (picture elements), where each pixel is a small dot. The size of the pixel depends on the resolution. For example, an image can be divided into 1000 pixels or 10,000 pixels. In the second case, there is a better representation of the image (better resolution), but more memory is needed to store the image. After an image is divided into pixels, each pixel is assigned a bit pattern. The size and the value of the pattern depend on the image. For an image made of only blackand- white dots (e.g., a chessboard), a I-bit pattern is enough to represent a pixel. If an image is not made of pure white and pure black pixels, you can increase the size of the bit pattern to include gray scale. For example, to show four levels of gray scale, you can use 2-bit patterns. A black pixel can be represented by 00, a dark gray pixel by 01, a light gray pixel by 10, and a white pixel by 11. There are several methods to represent color images. One method is called RGB, so called because each color is made of a combination of three primary colors: red, green, and blue. The intensity of each color is measured, and a bit pattern is assigned to it. Another method is called YCM, in which a color is made of a combination of three other primary colors: yellow, cyan, and magenta.
Audio refers to the recording or broadcasting of sound or music. Audio is by nature different from text, numbers, or images. It is continuous, not discrete. Even when we use a microphone to change voice or music to an electric signal, we create a continuous signal. In Chapters 4 and 5, we learn how to change sound or music to a digital or an analog signal.
Video refers to the recording or broadcasting of a picture or movie. Video can either be produced as a continuous entity (e.g., by a TV camera), or it can be a combination of images, each a discrete entity, arranged to convey the idea of motion. Again we can change video to a digital or an analog signal.
1.1.3 Data Flow
Communication between two devices can be simplex, half-duplex, or full-duplex as shown in Figure
In simplex mode, the communication is unidirectional, as on a one-way street. Only one of the two devices on a link can transmit; the other can only receive (see Figure a). Keyboards and traditional monitors are examples of simplex devices. The keyboard can only introduce input; the monitor can only accept output. The simplex mode can use the entire capacity of the channel to send data in one direction.
In half-duplex mode, each station can both transmit and receive, but not at the same time. When one device is sending, the other can only receive, and vice versa The half-duplex mode is like a one-lane road with traffic allowed in both directions.
When cars are traveling in one direction, cars going the other way must wait. In a half-duplex transmission, the entire capacity of a channel is taken over by whichever of the two devices is transmitting at the time. Walkie-talkies and CB (citizens band) radios are both half-duplex systems.
The half-duplex mode is used in cases where there is no need for communication in both directions at the same time; the entire capacity of the channel can be utilized for each direction. Full-Duplex:
In full-duplex both stations can transmit and receive simultaneously (see Figure c). The full-duplex mode is like a tW<D-way street with traffic flowing in both directions at the same time. In full-duplex mode, si~nals going in one direction share the capacity of the link: with signals going in the other din~c~on. This sharing can occur in two ways: Either the link must contain two physically separate t: nmsmissiIDn paths, one for sending and the other for receiving; or the capacity of the ch: arillilel is divided between signals traveling in both directions. One common example of full-duplex communication is the telephone network. When two people are communicating by a telephone line, both can talk and listen at the same time. The full-duplex mode is used when communication in both directions is required all the time. The capacity of the channel, however, must be divided between the two directions.
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THINGS USED IN THIS PROJECT
How it Works
PIR (passive infrared) motion sensor detects any movement of objects, human or animals. Mostly they are used in automatically activated lighting and burglar alarm systems.
Every object with temperature above absolute zero emits heat in the form of infrared radiation. PIR motion sensor detects change in the infrared radiation impinging on it. When any object or human passes in the front of the PIR sensor, the temperature in sensor’s field of view will rise from ambient temperature to object temperature and then back again to ambient temperature. PIR sensor converts this temperature change into the change in output voltage and that change in voltage is considered as motion detected.
1 / 2 • PIR Sensor
Sensor has three pins. Power ( VCC ), Ground (GND) and output (OUT) pin which gives logic high if motion is detected. It has two potentiometers. One for sensitivity adjustment and second for adjusting the time the output signal stays high when motion is detected.
PIR. PY Python
Create new python file PIR. py and enter the following code.
To run the code, open the terminal and go to the directory where your PIR.py is located. Then enter the command ” sudo python PIR.py ” and hit enter
VCC, OUT and GND pins
Potentiometers to adjust Sensitivity and Output Time
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Good evening, I’m Tanya Variava. I’m in my first year of Bsc. In computer science at Mithibai College. Python is the first ver programming language I have elearnt. Python is considered one of the most cutting edge programming language. Each language is somehow “unique” in a way, but if I were to list a few of Python’s pros I would say that is a high level language with lots of libraries and documentation, a very nice community, it is widely adopted, powerful enough to build almost anything with it and it can be ideal for some specific task like prototyping . Python was ranked as the number 4 programming language by Red Monk in 2016. Python is a high level language which is widely used for web development, scientific and numeric computing. It is an interpreted language. Python uses shell scripting. The shell in Python is called the IDLE which stands for Integrated Development and Learning Environment . Python allows you to convert text to an integer. The standard data types in python are
Dictionary-Keys are immutable but values are mutable
Float – Immutable
That was the basic introduction to this extensive language that is Python. The biggest advantage I have is to have a teacher and a mentor like Dr.Mehta. There are so many things that I would not have known if I was not a student of Vissicomp. You can google certain things but these facts will not be found even on Google. For example, a dictionary has key and value pairs which is collectively called an item Google will tell you that a dictionary contains key value pairs but no one will tell you that they are collectively called an item. Another example would be Dict() is a constructer for the dictionary class. Dictionary is mutable all websites will tell you it isn’t wrong but to be more accurate the key in dictionary is immutable but the value is mutable. My professors here at vissicomp are of the firm belief that exams and marks are temporary but knowledge is permanent. The syllabus and marks are given importance but they aren’t placed above everything else. The IT industry is a skill based industry and that is kept in mind. I have learnt a lot about Python as a programming language at vissicomp than I would have learnt anywhere else. Gaining knowledge is the first step to wisdom, sharing knowledge is the greatest deed towards humanity Dr. Mehta has oceans of knowledge in not just Python but everything else and I’m very grateful that he shares his knowledge with all of us. Thank you very much sir for everything. Thank you very much ladies and gentlemen. It has been an absolute pleasure.
What is divide and conquer ?
How this technique improves performance of an algorithm?
Example of this technique when applied to search an element ?
What is Master Theorem?
Example of the theorem.
These are some of the questions students of information technology and computer science ask. Most of the time they are not able to answer. On ‘Googling’ they find the example but can’t explain.
We at Vissicomp invite you to answer these questions and get rewarded for correct answer.
To help you, we give steps of ‘Divide and conqure’.
CONCEPT OF DIVIDE AND CONQUER
In order to accomplish a task using the above technique, the following steps need to be
- Divide the problem domain into SMALL unit(atomic level), where SMALL is the basic unit whose solution is known.
- Solve individual sub-problems using the solution of basic unit.
- Combine the sub-solutions to get the final answer.
Your time starts now!
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Installation Of Raspberrypi Operating System( NOOBS & Wheezy-pi)
The SD card contains the Raspberry Pi’s operating system (the OS is the software that makes it work, like Windows on a PC or OSX on a Mac). This is very different from most computers and it is what many people find the most daunting part of setting up their Raspberry Pi.
The following instructions are for Windows users. Linux and Mac users can find instructions at www.raspberrypi.org/downloads
- Download the Raspberry Pi operating system The recommended OS is called Raspbian.Downloadit here: http://downloads.raspberrypi.org/images/raspbian/2012-12-16-wheezy-raspbian/2012-12-16-wheezy-raspbian.zip
- Unzip the file that you just downloaded
- a) Right click on the file and choose “Extract all”.
- b) Follow the instructions—you will end up with a file ending in .img This .img file can only be written to your SD card by special disk imaging software, so…
- Download the Win32DiskImager software
- a) Download win32diskimager-binary.zip (currently version 0.6) from: https://launchpad.net/win32-image-writer/+download
- b) Unzip it in the same way you did the Raspbian .zip file c) You now have a new folder called win32diskimager-binary You are now ready to write the Raspbian image to your SD card.
- Writing Raspbian to the SD card
- a) Plug your SD card into your PC
- b) In the folder you made in step 3(b), run the file named Win32DiskImager.exe (in Windows Vista, 7 and 8 we recommend that you right-click this file and choose “Run as administrator”). You will see something like this:
- c) If the SD card (Device) you are using isn’t found automatically then click on the drop down box and select it Preparing your SD card for the Raspberry Pi 3
- d) In the Image File box, choose the Raspbian .img file that you downloaded
- e) Click Write
- f) After a few minutes you will have an SD card that you can use in your Raspberry Pi
- Booting your Raspberry Pi for the first time
- a) Follow the Quick start guide
- b) On first boot you will come to the Raspi-config window
- c) Change settings such as timezone and locale if you want
- d) Finally, select the second choice: expand_rootfs and say ‘yes’ to a reboot
- e) The Raspberry Pi will reboot and you will see raspberrypi login:
- f) Type: pi
- g) You will be asked for your Password
- h) Type: raspberry
- i) You will then see the prompt: pi@raspberry ~ $
- j) Start the desktop by typing: startx
- k) You will find yourself in a familiar-but-different desktop environment.
- l) Experiment, explore and have fun!
2.Install NOOBS on the Raspberry Pi
This project is pretty simple. Besides your Raspberry Pi and essential peripherals, here’s all you’ll need:
- A computer with an SD card slot
- An SD or microSD card of at least 8 GB
Step 1: Download NOOBS and extract it
You’re going to use your computer to put NOOBS on an SD card – so step one is to get NOOBS onto your computer!
The NOOBS download page will let you choose between NOOBS and “NOOBS Lite.” NOOBS includes a full version of Raspbian, so you can install that particular operating system without using the internet at all. With NOOBS Lite, on the other hand, you’ll need a network connection to install any of the operating systems NOOBS makes available – even Raspbian.
Go ahead and choose whichever version you would like. NOOBS will download as a .zip file, so before you do anything else, go ahead and extract it.
Step 2: Format an SD card
Now you’re going to want to go ahead and stick your SD card into the corresponding slot on your computer. You’re going to want to format it as FAT. There are a few ways to do this:
On Mac or Windows, use the SD Association’s Formatting Tool (Mac users can also just use the disk utility). Make sure the “Format size adjustment” option is set to “on.” Then erase it in FAT (or MS-DOS) format.
Step 3: Put the NOOBS files on the SD card
Now, just drag and drop the NOOBS files into your newly formatted SD card. You want the files only, so if your .zip extracted to a folder, open that folder up and select only the stuff inside of it.
Step 4: Put your SD card into your Raspberry Pi and boot it up
- Once you have NOOBS on your SD card, using it is incredibly easy. Just put the SD card into your Raspberry Pi
- This is the step in which that happens. After booting to NOOBS, you’ll be greeted with a menu that will let you choose which operating system you’d like to install on your Pi.
- Your menu may look a little bit different than the one in the screenshot above, because NOOBS ingeniously adapts to your generation and model of Raspberry Pi.
- just click on “Install” and sit back. From now on, your Pi will boot directly to that operating system.
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