# Data Structure

### Interview Questions in Data structures

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1.)  Convert the expression ((A + B) * C – (D – E) ^ (F + G)) to equivalent Prefix and Postfix notations.

i.)      Prefix Notation: – * +ABC ^ – DE + FG

ii.)    Postfix Notation: AB + C * DE – FG + ^ –

2.)  Sorting is not possible by using which of the following methods? (Insertion, Selection, Exchange, Deletion)

An.) Sorting is not possible in Deletion. Using insertion we can perform insertion sort, using selection we can perform selection sort, using exchange we can perform the bubble sort (and other similar sorting methods). But no sorting method can be done just using deletion.

3.)  List out few of the applications that make use of Multilinked Structures?

(i)                Sparse matrix,

(ii)              Index generation.

4.)  In tree construction which is the suitable efficient data structure? (Array, Linked list, Stack, Queue)

An.)Linked list is the suitable efficient data structure

5.)  Classify the Hashing Functions based on the various methods by which the key value is found.

1. Direct method,
2. Subtraction method,
3. Modulo-Division method,
4. Digit-Extraction method,
5. Mid-Square method,
6. Folding method,
7. Pseudo-random method

6.)  What are the types of Collision Resolution Techniques and the methods used in each of the type?

• Open addressing (closed hashing),the methods used include: Overflow block.
• Closed addressing (open hashing),The methods used include: Linked list, Binary tree

7.)  Whether Linked List is linear or Non-linear data structure?

An.)

According to Access strategies Linked list is a linear one.
According to Storage Linked List is a Non-linear one

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### Perform push and pop operations over stack in c

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# Perform push and pop operations over stack in c

Push: Push saves value in stack. The values having same data type can be pushed into stack.The value which is pushed at the last is stored at the top most position.
Pop: Push removes value from stack. The top most value is removed first i.e. LIFO policy. After removing a value from stack, the next value becomes the peek value.

 #include < stdio.h > #include < conio.h > #define max 5   void main() {       //… create stack       int stack[max],data;       int top,option,reply;       //… init stack       top = -1;       clrscr();       do       {             printf(“\n 1. push”);             printf(“\n 2. pop”);             printf(“\n 3. exit”);             printf(“\nSelect proper option : “);             scanf(“%d”,&option);             switch(option)             {                   case 1 : // push                         printf(“\n Enter a value : “);                         scanf(“%d”,&data);                         reply = push(stack,&top,&data);                         if( reply == -1 )                                printf(“\nStack is full”);                         else                                printf(“\n Pushed value”);                         break;                   case 2 : // pop                         reply = pop ( stack,&top,&data);                         if( reply == – 1)                                printf(“\nStack is empty”);                         else                                printf(“\n Popped value is %d”,data);                         break;                   case 3 : exit(0);             } // switch       }while(1); } // main   int push( int stack[max],int *top, int *data) {       if( *top == max -1 )             return(-1);       else       {             *top = *top + 1;             stack[*top] = *data;             return(1);       } // else } // push   int pop( int stack[max], int *top, int *data) {       if( *top == -1 )             return(-1);       else       {             *data = stack[*top];             *top = *top – 1;             return(1);       } //else } // pop

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### Hashing technique in Data structures in C

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1. The memory address of the first element of an array is called

2. The memory address of fifth element of an array can be calculated by the formula

a. LOC(Array=Base(Array)+w(5-lower bound), where w is the number of words per memory cell for the array
b. LOC(Array)=Base(Array)+(5-lower bound), where w is the number of words per memory cell for the array
c. LOC(Array)=Base(Array)+(5-Upper bound), where w is the number of words per memory cell for the array
d. None of above

3. Which of the following data structures are indexed structures?

a. linear arrays
c. both of above
d. none of above

4. Which of the following is not the required condition for binary search algorithm?

a. The list must be sorted
b. there should be the direct access to the middle element in any sub list
c. There must be mechanism to delete and/or insert elements in list
d. none of above

5. Which of the following is not a limitation of binary search algorithm?

a. must use a sorted array
b. requirement of sorted array is expensive when a lot of insertion and deletions are needed
c. there must be a mechanism to access middle element directly
d. binary search algorithm is not efficient when the data elements are more than 1000.

6. Two dimensional arrays are also called

a. tables arrays
b. matrix arrays
c. both of above
d. none of above

7. A variable P is called pointer if

a. P contains the address of an element in DATA.
b. P points to the address of first element in DATA
c. P can store only memory addresses
d. P contain the DATA and the address of DATA

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### Hashing technique in Data structures in C

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What is hashing technique? Describe in brief.

• In general, in all searching techniques, search time is dependent on the number of items. Sequential search, binary search and all the search trees are totally dependent on number of items and many key comparisons are involved.
• Hashing is a technique where search time is independent of the number of items or elements. In this technique a hash function is used to generate an address from a key. The hash function takes a key as input and returns the hash value of that key which is used as an address index in the array. • We can write hash function as follows

h(k)=a;

Where h is hash function, k is the key, a is the hash value of the key.

While choosing a hash function we should consider some important points.

• It should be easy to compute
• It should generate address with minimum collision.

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### Data structures in C

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#include<stdio.h>

#include<conio.h>

#include<alloc.h>

struct node

{int data;

struct node *next;

}*start=NULL;

void creat()

{char ch;

do

struct node *new_node,*current;

new_node=(struct node *)malloc(sizeof(struct node));

printf(“nEnter the data : “);

scanf(“%d”,&new_node->data);

new_node->next=NULL;

if(start==NULL)

{  start=new_node;

current=new_node;  }

else

{  current->next=new_node;

current=new_node;  }

printf(“nDo you want to creat another : “);

ch=getche();

}while(ch!=’n’);}

void display()

{struct node *new_node;

new_node=start;

while(new_node!=NULL)

{   printf(“%d—>”,new_node->data);

new_node=new_node->next;   }

printf(“NULL”);}

void main()

{create();

display();}

Output:

Enter the data : 10

Do you want to creat another :  y

Enter the data : 20

Do you want to creat another : y

Enter the data : 30

Do you want to creat another : n

10—>20—>30—>NULL

### Data structures in C

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Practical applications of data structures

Hash Table – used for fast data lookup – symbol table for compilers, database indexing, caches, and unique data representation.

Tree – dictionary, such as one found on a mobile telephone for auto completion and spell-checking.

Suffix tree – fast full text searches used in most word processors.

Stack – undo\redo operation in word processors, Expression evaluation and syntax parsing, many virtual machines like JVM are stack oriented.

Queues – Transport and operations research where various entities are stored and held to be processed later i.e. the queue performs the function of a buffer.

Priority queues – process scheduling in the kernel

Trees – Parsers, File system

Radix tree – IP routing table

BSP tree – 3D computer graphics

Graphs – Connections/relations in social networking sites, Routing ,networks of communication, data organization etc.

Heap – Dynamic memory allocation in lisp

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### data structures in C Programming

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Concept of Data Type

• C language programmer has to tell the system before-hand, the type of numbers or characters used in the program. These are data types. There are many data types in C language.
• A C programmer has to use appropriate data type as per his requirement. C language data types can be broadly classified as:

1)     Primary data type

2)     Derived data type

3)     User-defined data type

Primary Data Type

• All C Compilers accept the following fundamental data types.
 1 Integer int 2 Character char 3 Floating point float 4 Double precision floating point double 5 Void void
• The size and range of each data type is given in the table below.
 Data Type Range of Values 1 char –128 to 127 2 Int –32768 to +32767 3 float 3.4 e–38 to 3.4 e+38 4 double 1.7 e–308 to 1.7 e+308

Integer Type

• Integers are whole numbers with a machine dependent range of values. A good programming language as to support the programmer by giving a control on a range of numbers and storage space.
•  C has 3 classes of integer storage namely short int, int and long int. All of these data types have signed and unsigned forms.
• A short int requires half the space than normal integer values. Unsigned numbers are always positive and consume all the bits for the magnitude of the number. The long and unsigned integers are used to declare a longer range of values.

Floating Point Types

• Floating point number represents a real number with 6 digits precision. Floating point numbers are denoted by the keyword float.
• When the accuracy of the floating point number is insufficient, we can use the double to define the number. The double is same as float but with longer precision. To extend the precision further we can use long double which consumes 80 bits of memory space.

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